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Sat 10 Nov 2012 07:00:48 | 1 comments

The Thar Desert (Rajasthaniथर मरुधरHindi:थर मरुस्थल, Urduصحراےَ تھر) also known as the Great Indian Desert) is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 18th largest subtropical desert.[2]

Location and description

Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Ranges on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as theGreat Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined.

It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northernGujarat state.

In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh Province and the southeastern portion of Punjab Province, where it joins the Cholistan Desert near Bahawalpur. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’.

[edit]Physiography and geology

The Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.

The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard pan. Some of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.

[edit]Origin

The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 10,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar-Hakra ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a water source for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.

Most studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati River coincide with the bed of the present-day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with theYamuna once flowed into the present riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar-Hakra.

Studies on Kalibangan in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that it was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Ghaggar-Hakra. This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".[4]

[edit]Thar in ancient literature

The position of Thar desert (orange colour) in Iron Age Vedic India.

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses hisagneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkarsurrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]

According to Jain cosmologyJambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabhaand King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).

Course of Sarasvati river through Thar desert

The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.

Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while theHelmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.

There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.

Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganges and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).

In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati andAśvanvatī the same river.[6]

The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present dayBikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]

The Desert National ParkJaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.[5]

[edit]Biodiversity

Chinkara or Indian Gazelle is found across Thar Desert

Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.

Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Blackbuck(Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.

Peacock on Khejri tree

The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eaglesharriersfalconsbuzzardskestrel and vulturesShort-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons(Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.

The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri orPipal trees in villages or Deblina.

[edit]Natural vegetation

Prosopis cineraria or Khejri

The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest[9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following treeshrub and herb species.[10]

[edit]Small trees and shrubs

Calligonum polygonoidesAcacia jacquemontiiBalanites roxburghiiZiziphus zizyphusZiziphus nummulariaCalotropis procera,Suaeda fruticosaCrotalaria burhiaAerva javanicaClerodendrum multiflorumLeptadenia pyrotechnicaLycium barbarumGrewia tenaxCommiphora mukulEuphorbia neriifoliaCordia sinensisMaytenus emarginataCapparis deciduaMimosa hamata

[edit]Herbs and grasses

Ochthochloa compressaDactyloctenium scindicumCenchrus biflorusCenchrus setigerusLasiurus scindicusCynodon dactylon,Panicum turgidumPanicum antidotaleDichanthium annulatumSporobolus marginatusSaccharum spontaneumCenchrus ciliaris,Desmostachya bipinnataEragrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmites species, Tribulus terrestrisTypha species, Sorghum halepenseCitrullus colocynthis

[edit]Threats and preservation

Blackbuck male and female

There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.

Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouseJalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

[edit]Greening desert

Greening desert with plantations of jojobaat Fatehpur, Shekhawati

The soil of the Thar Desert remains dry for much of the year and is prone to wind erosion. High velocity winds blow soil from the desert, depositing some on neighboring fertile lands, and causing shifting sand dunes within the desert, which bury fences and block roads and railway tracks. Permanent solution to this problem of shifting sand dunes can be provided by fixation of the shifting sand dunes with suitable plant species and planting windbreaks and shelterbelts. They also provide protection from hot or cold and desiccating winds and the invasion of sand.

Checking of shifting sand dunes through plantations of Acacia tortilis nearLaxma

Comments

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